Understanding of Digital Video Manipulation Techniques

and its Influence on the Preceived Credibility of Television Information

Introduction & Problem Affirmation

This study seeks to look at the effects of technique on understanding. By " technique” After all the body of strategies and progression of jobs that are performed in order to achieve a desired result. All liveliness employs approach, but , inside the context of this project, " technique” identifies the methods and knowledge—" knowhow”—by which human beings make artifacts out of raw materials found in all their environment. Specifically, this task is concerned together with the diffusion and adoption of newly discovered techniques used to produce digital video content material for mass media industries and specifically just how knowledge of these kinds of techniques may possibly affect the identified credibility of television reports among potential viewers. Since image-making approaches evolve along with the speedy adoption of digital press production tools and new media division channels, learning the parameters of image treatment is more important than ever. In addition , these innovating techniques are widely unknown and they may be underemphasized in current mass media literacy education.

It is noticeable that digital still imagery is vulnerable to manipulation by virtue of a few famous visible alterations that sparked important debate in the press and public discourse. There are a host of traditional examples. For example , in 1983, editors of National Geographic Magazine improved the positions of the pryamids at Giza in order to in shape the vertical framing in the magazine cover. Another well-known example took place when, throughout the O. L. Simpson trial in year 1994, Time Publication altered Simpon's mugshot to help make the defendant appear more menacing when compared to the same mugshot posted on the cover of Newsweek.


Figure 1 | Unaltered mugshot (left), modified mugshot (right) (source: wikipedia url)

The latest examples include a Reuters reports service picture of a metropolis skyline in Lebanon during the recent Israeli–Lebanese conflict in 2006. Fany Farid, a digital picture analysis specialist at Dartmouth College who also creates software program algorithms that detect digital image manipulation, characterized the general public reaction to the Reuters photo as " one of attaque and anger, ” and concluded that that the " manipulation was merely inexcusable. ” (Farid 2006)

Figure several | Released doctored image of views in

Lebanon (Farid 2006)

Figure two | Initial photo of skyline in Lebanon

(Farid 2006)


In the year 2003 a freelance professional photographer was charged of doctoring a photograph of the American jewellry interacting with Iraqi citizens in the modern Iraq conflict. The printed image is known as a composite of two digital images considered at the same scene at diverse points in time. It came out on the cover of the La Times that all year. (Farid 2006)

Number 4 | Original A

(Farid 2006)

Figure your five | Initial B

(Farid 2006)

Number 6 | Published blend

(Farid 2006)

These examples and others with varying examples of ethical deviation show how vulnerable the journalistic photo is today.

Audience reaction to manipulated images differs depending on context and circulation in the image. Between friends photo manipulation may be humorous, and society allows the incredulous behavior of photo publishers who bring about celebrity chat tabloids. In comparison, when an graphic is distributed to a mass audience, as well as the subject matter is definitely serious in nature, manipulation is scarcely taken casually. Some critics and researchers have observed recent styles in graphical overlays, display layout, and packaging techniques for television information, but have omitted issues relating to direct video image manipulation. Fox, Lang, et ing. (2004) looked at viewer knowledge of television news details as related to the superimposition of graphics over video. In addition , some research planned and codified photographic and visual design conventions found in the packaging of...

References: Agarwala, A., M. Dontecheva, ain al. (2004). " Fun Digital Photomontage. " ACM

Transactions about Graphics (TOG) Volume 23(3): 9294-302.

Agarwala, A., A. Hertzmann, ainsi que al. (2004). " Keyframe-Based Tracking pertaining to Rotoscoping

and Animation. " ACM Deals on Design (TOG) 23(3): 584-591.

Akehurst, L., G. Kohnken, ainsi que al. (2001). " Content credibility of accounts derived from

live and video sales pitches. " Legal and Criminological Psychology six: 18.

Anderson, K. (1999). Image Consultants. Broadcasting & Cable. 129: 52

Anderson, K

Autodesk (2005). Turner Studios Understands Collaborative HIGH-DEFINITION Finishing with Autodesk

Alternatives, Autodesk, Incorporation.:

2 . http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?siteID=123112&id=6521486&linkID

=5572508 August 30, 2006

Autodesk (2006). Broadcasters Around the world Turn to Autodesk 's Images Solutions to

Distinguish Themselves, Autodesk, Inc

Associations. http://investors.autodesk.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=117861&p=irolnewsArticle_Print&ID=845986&highlight= October 30, 06\

Babbie, At the

Barker, Deb. (1988). " " It 's Recently been Real": Varieties of Television Representation. " Important

Studies in Mass Connection 5: 42-56.

Baym, G. (2005). " The Daily Show: Discursive Integration plus the Reinvention of

Political Writing. " Personal Communications twenty-two: 259-276.

Brinkmann, R. (1999). The Artwork And Research Of Digital Compositing. North park, CA,

Morgan Kaufmann.

Campbell, D. Big t. and J. C. Stanley (1963). Trial and error and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Pertaining to Research

Cohen, B. C. (1963). The Press and Foreign Policy. Princeton, And. J., Princeton University


Connell, We. (1979). " Ideology as well as discourse as well as institution. " Screen nineteen: 129-134.

Cooke, L. (2003). " Data Acceleration and Visual Tendencies in Print, Tv, and

Internet News Resources. " Technical Communication Quarterly 12(2): 155-181.

Cooke, D. (2005). " A visual concurrence of print out, television, and the internet: planning 40

a lot of design enhancements made on news display. " Fresh Media & Society 1(22): 2246.

Craig, J. (1974). Production For The Graphic Designer. New York, NEW YORK, Billboard

Journals, Inc

Ernst, W. (2002). " Among Real Time and Memory on Demand: Glare on as well as of

Tv set. " The South Atlantic Quarterly 101(3): 625-637.

Farid, F. (2006). " Digital Doctoring: Tips on how to tell the true from the artificial. " Value In

press at time of reference: five.

Flanagin, A. J. and M. T. Metzger (2000). " Perceptions of Internet Info

Credibility. " Journalism & Mass Interaction Quarterly 77(3): 515-540.

Grabe, M. At the., S. Zhou, et approach. (2001). " Explicating Sensationalism in Tv News:

Articles and the Special features of Type. " Log of Transmitting &

Greer, J. D. and M. D. Gosen (2002). " How Much Is An excessive amount of? Assessing Degrees of

Digital Change as Elements in Public Belief of New Multimedia Credibility. "

Hall, H. (1980). Encoding/Decoding. Culture, Media, Language: Operating Papers in

Cultural Studies, 1972-79

Hantz, A. M. and M. L. Diefenbach (2002). Digital Image Treatment, Communication

Theory, and the Public Trust

Ibelema, M. and D. Powell (2001). " Cable Television News Viewed As Most Reliable. "

Newspaper Research Log 22(1): 41-51.

Jia, J., J. Sun, et approach. (2006). " Drag-And-Drop Pasting. " ACM Transactions about Graphics

(TOG) 25(3): 631-637.

Johns, A. (1998). The Nature of the Publication: Print and Knowledge in the Making,

College or university of Chicago, il Press.

Meeks, T. J. and B. K. Kaye (1998). " Cruising Is usually Believing? Evaluating Internet and

Traditional Resources On Multimedia Credibility Steps. " Journalism & Mass

Kensicki, L. J. (2003). " Building Credibility for nonprofit Businesses through

Web page Interface Design. " Diary of Aesthetic Literacy 23(2): 139-162.

Kiousis, S. (2001). " Community Trust or perhaps Mistrust? Perceptions of Press Credibility inside the

Information Age group. " Mass Communication & Society 4(4): 381-403.

Li, Y., M. Sun, et al. (2004). " Lazy Snapping. " ACM Deals on Images (TOG)

23(3): 303-308.

Livingstone, S. (2003). The changing nature of audiences: through the mass viewers to the

interactive media end user

McCombs, Meters. E. and D. M. Shaw (1972). " The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass

Media. " The Public Thoughts and opinions Quarterly 36(2): 176-187.

She, P. (1988). " Understanding and Computing Credibility Of Newspapers: Expanding and

Index. " Journalism Quarterly 66: 567-574.

Mittell, J. (2000). " The Cultural Benefits of an Anti-Television Metaphor. " Television &

New Multimedia 1(2): 215-238.

Morris, L. S. (2005). " The Fox Information Factor. " Press as well as Politics 10(3): 56-79.

Newcomb, H. (2005). " Studying Television: Same Questions, Distinct Contexts. "

Cinema Diary 45(1): 107-111.

Nguyen, A. (2003). " The Current Status and Potential Development of On the net News

Intake: A Strength Approach. " First Mon: 10.

Rimmer, T. and D. Weaver (1987). " Different Questions, Different Answers? Media Make use of

and Media Credibility. " Journalism Quarterly 64: 28-36, 44.

Rother, C., Versus. Kolmogorov, ou al. (2004). " " Grab Cut": interactive foreground extraction

applying iterated graph cuts. " ACM Transactions on Design (TOG) 23(3): 309-314.


Las Vegas Article

Analisis Determinan Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi Essay